In his 1924 Surrealist Manifesto, André Breton identifies Sigmund Freud's work in psychology as contributing to the founding of Surrealism. Most important was Freud's distinction between the unconscious and conscious realms of the mind. Breton advocated a joining of the unconscious dreams and fantasies with conscious reality to achieve "an absolute reality, a surreality." Incorporating images from dreams, imagination, and free-association, surrealist paintings often appear nonsensical. Animals are perfect stand-ins for people in surrealist art because like the unconscious mind, they operate instinctually. Steep perspective; geometric, checkerboard patterns; heavy, out-of-place shadows; and large tracts of empty space often appear in surrealist art. Such compositional devices disorient the viewer to some degree, but only in order to stimulate the imagination. Common to the work of famed Surrealists Giorgio de Chirico, Salvador Dalí, and René Magritte, the color blue helps create the kind of cool, mysterious atmosphere found in many contemporary surrealism paintings. Surrealist painters tend to use "tight" brushstrokes. Their aim is to meld fantasy with reality, which they accomplish by rendering individual forms realistically, but placing them out of context.