Cubism has had a tremendous impact on art history. Two famous artists, Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, who were influenced by Fauvism, are credited with starting Cubism in 1908. The root of the word Cubism, "cube", describes its general idea: an object is depicted by "cubing" it or breaking it down into essential shapes. Those shapes are then rearranged into an abstract composition-often depicting more than one perspective of the same view. With the experimentation of Cubism, artists began to play with other techniques, like collage. Although classic cubist works were often still lifes and portraits, cubism gradually embraced many unique characteristics. Artists in America combined cubist composition techniques with a colorful sense of jazz rhythms and the urban industrial scene. True to cubism, the painting shows a variety of perspectives, often misaligned. Shapes in cubist paintings not only allow the painter to play with our perception of two and three dimensional spaces, but the formal language of Cubism also expresses psychological and conceptual concerns. The composition contains a mixture of forms reduced down to basic shapes. By interweaving fractured shapes that jump and recede from jagged planes, Cubists challenge the notion of what a painting is. Hence, they create a tension between a representation of three-dimensional space and a painting as a flat two-dimensional design on the canvas's surface. Although early cubists paintings were often reduced to a monochrome of brown tones, the use of collage and found materials allowed cubists to reintroduce color into their work. Most of cubists' colors practically sing. Brush strokes range from being assertive and bold to chiaroscuro, or soft shading of light and dark. Whatever the painterly style of the artist, the Cubists' mark serves to give both energy and form to their subject.